Knowledge is a “Process of Knowing”. Someone with knowledge has the “Capacity to Act”. Knowledge is dynamically created, and is intrinsically linked to people, and is the basis of all action. Knowledge is not data or information, and should not be viewed as an object that can be leveraged by simply investing in Information Technology to manage it.

Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom

  • Data – unorganized and unprocessed facts and figures
  • Information – aggregation of data after processing for meaning and purpose
  • Knowledge –  derived from information based on understanding of the perceived importance/relevance to a problem area and can be used to draw meaningful conclusions
  • Wisdom – the ability to make good decisions based on knowledge and experience


Different ways of categorization of knowledge: 

  • By Knowledge Psychology
    • Declarative Knowledge – consists of simple facts and objects
    • Procedural Knowledge – represents the understanding of how to carry out specific procedure
  • By Articulateness
    • Explicit Knowledge – codified and easily be articulated
    • Tacit Knowledge – embedded in human mind through experience and can only be articulated through great effort
  • By Knowledge Holder
    • Individual Knowledge – held by one person
    • Collective Knowledge – shared by everyone in a specific environment and may include individual knowledge that only reaches its full potential when combined with that of others

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